WHO SHOULD PAY?
AT DAWN ON THE DAY OF ID-UL-FITR, THE AUSPICIOUS DAY AT THE EXPIRY OF THE LUNAR MONTH OF RAMADHAAN, SADAQAH FOR THAT DAY, SADAQATUL FITR BECOMES OBLIGATORY UPON EVERY SANE MUSLIM WHO POSSESSES THE MINIMUM WEALTH LIABLE TO THE YEARLY ZAKAAT, OR IT’S VALUE. UNLIKE ZAKAAT IT DOES NOT HAVE TO BE POSSESSED FOR ONE UNINTERUPTED YEAR AND NOR DOES IT HAVE TO BE FOR TRADE. IT ONLY HAS TO BE FREE FROM DEBT AND FROM THE BASIC NECESSITIES OF LIFE FOR ONESELF AND FOR THE MEMBERS OF ONES FAMILY. BASIC NECESSITIES MEAN THOSE THINGS WHICH ONE NEEDS FOR SUFFICIENCY ONLY. THESE ARE FURNITURE, CLOTHES, MEANS OF TRANSPORT, AND WEAPONS FOR PROTECTION AND TOOLS FOR WORK.
1462] Abu Sa’id Al-Khudri (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated: On Id-ul-Fitr or Id ul-Adha, Allah’s Apostle (The blessing and peace of Allah be upon him) went out to the praying place. After finishing the prayer, he delivered the sermon and ordered the people to give charity. He said, «O people! Give charity». Then he went towards the women and said, «O women! Give charity, for I have seen that the majority of the dwellers of Hell -Fire were women». The women asked, «O Allah Apostle! What is the reason for it?» He said: «O women! You curse frequently, and are ungrateful to your husbands. I have not seen anyone more deficient in intelligence and religion than you. O women, some of you can lead a cautious wise man astray». Then he left. And when he reached his house, Zainab, the wife of Ibn Mas’ud, came and asked permission to enter. It was said, «O Allah’s Apostle! She is Zainab». He asked, «Which Zainab?» The reply was that she was the wife of Ibn Mas’ud. He said: «Yes, let her in», And she was admitted. Then she said. «O Prophet of Allah! Today you ordered people to give charity and I had an ornament and intended to give it as charity, but Ibn Mas’ud said that he and his children deserved it more than anybody else». The Prophet (The blessing and peace of Allah be upon him) replied, «Ibn Mas’ud had spoken the truth. Your husband and your children had more right than anybody else».(BUKHARI)
FOR WHOM SHOULD ONE PAY SADAQAH?
Such a Muslim as described above is required to pay the
sadaqah on the day of Id-ul-fitr:
1) For himself;
2) For his small poor children. If these small children are rich, and possess independent property, this Sadaqah can be paid out of their wealth
Ibn Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated: Allah’s Apostle (The blessing and peace of Allah be upon him) enjoined the payment of one measure of dates or one measure of barley as Zakat-ul-Fitr on every Muslim slave or free, male or female, young or old, and he ordered that it be paid should before the people go out to offer the Id prayer. (One measure-3 Kilograms Approx.).
 Ibn Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated: Allah’s Apostle (The blessing and peace of Allah be upon him) made it incumbent on all the slave or free Muslims, male or female, to pay one measure of dates or barley as Zakat-ul-Fitr.(BUKHARI)
FOR WHOM DOES ONE NOT NEED TO PAY SADAQAH
1. A grandfather is not under any obligation to pay for his small poor grand-children. Another view, however, is that the grandfather takes the place of the father when the latter is absent or poor.
2. The Sadaqah of the day of Id-ul-Fitr need not be paid by a Muslim for his mature offspring although they form part of his Family, nor for his wife. If however, he pays this Sadaqah on Behalf of his wife or adult offspring, without their express Permission, their consent is understood by custom and it is Lawful.
HOW SHOULD ONE PAY SADAQAH?
This Sadaqah payable by one individual should be paid to one Poor man. Jurists have disagreed on whether or not it is Permissible for a person to divide his Sadaqah among several poor men. It is however, correct to pay the Sadaqah of a number of individuals to a single poor man.
WHAT IS TO BE GIVEN AS SADAQAH?
1) Sadaqatul-Fitr amounts to HALF a saa of wheat, or ONE saa, i.e. 270 tolas of dried date or barley. Note 7.5 tolas =87.48 grams = 2, 8125 troy ounces).
2) It is permissible to pay the value of these things in cash. It is better to give cash when the above items are easily available. When these items, such as barley, wheat or dates are scarce, then it is better to give these instead of cash.
 Abu Sa’id Al-Khudri (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated: We used to give one measure of meal or one measure of barley or one measure of dates, or one measure of cottage cheese or one measure of Raisins (dried grapes) as Zakat-ul-Fitr.
 Abdullah bin ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated: The Prophet (The blessing and peace of Allah be upon him) ordered (Muslims) to give one measure of dates or one measure of barley as Zakat-ul-Fitr. The people regarded two Mudds of wheat as equal to that.
 Abu Sa’id Al-Khudri (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated: In the life-time of the Prophet (The blessing and peace of Allah be upon him) we used to give one measure of food or one measure of dates or one charity of Al-ul-Fitr. And when Mu’awiya became the Caliph and the wheat was (available in abundance) he said, I think (observe) that one Mudd (of wheat) equals two Mudds (of any of the above-mentioned things).(BUKHARI)
WHEN TO PAY SADAQAH?
The time when this Sadaqah becomes obligatory upon a Muslim is at dawn, on the day of Id – ul – Fitr. The arrival of that appointed period is the condition for the obligation of this Sadaqah. Therefore, one who died or became poor on the eve of this period, is not liable for this Sadaqah. It is also not required from one who became a Muslim, or became rich, or was born after this period.
It is praiseworthy to pay this Sadaqah before one proceeds for the performance of the prayer of Id – ul – fitr. Payments before or after this period is also correct. If payment was not made before this period, it will have to be made after because the obligation continues until it is discharged. It is, however, disliked to do so later.
 ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated: The Prophet (The blessing and peace of Allah be upon him) ordered the people to pay Zakat-ul-Fitr before going to the Id prayer.(BUKHARI)
VIRTUES OF SADAQATUL FITR
Raslulullah (SAW)said: “The fast of Ramadhaan remains suspended between the heaven and the earth. It is raised through the Sadaqatut”Fitr”.
The Sadaqatul Fitr purifies one’s fast and one obtains the complete blessing of the fast: It also assists the poor and the needy to join in the joyous occasion and atmosphere of EID.
May Allah Ta’aala grant us Taufeeq to fulfil this obligation and may He accept our Sadaqatul Fitr from us. AAMEEN